American Journal of Life Sciences

Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015

  • Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones: Special Issue for the Fifth Workshop on Peptide & Hormone Research

    Takashi Yazawa

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 1-2
    Received: Apr. 17, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 17, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
  • Identification and Application of Drosophila Novel Bioactive Peptides dRYamides

    Takanori Ida, Eri Iwamoto, Takahiro Sato, Masayasu Kojima

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 3-7
    Received: Mar. 25, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 02, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: The ligands of many orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain to be identified, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, such as Drosophila melanogaster. Identification of their cognate ligands is critical for understanding the function and regulation of such GPCRs. Indeed, the discovery of bioactive peptides that bind GPCRs has enhanced our ... Show More
  • Physiological Functions and Pathology of Ghrelin

    Takahiro Sato, Kanae Oishi, Takanori Ida, Masayasu Kojima

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 8-16
    Received: Mar. 25, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 03, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone made up of 28 amino acid residues; the N-terminal serine 3 residues is modified by octanoic acid, a medium-chain fatty acid. Ghrelin is mainly secreted by the stomach and has various effects, including growth hormone release, hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, suppression of insulin secretion, and hypotensive effects. Mos... Show More
  • Effects of Neurotensin and LANT-6 on Food Intake in Chicks

    Keiko Masuda, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Tetsuya Tachibana, Kazuyoshi Ukena

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 17-23
    Received: Mar. 20, 2015
    Accepted: Mar. 24, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) and an NT-related peptide (Lys, Asn, NT8–13; LANT-6) are produced in the chicken brain and intestine, and these peptides are encoded by the same precursor gene (NT/LANT-6 precursor). Although it has been reported that the central administration of NT suppresses food intake in mammals, the effect of NT and LANT-6 on feeding behavior... Show More
  • Restraint-Induced Glucocorticoid Receptor Downregulation is Dysregulated in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats Likely from Impairment of miR-142-3p Expression in the Hypothalamus and Hippocampus

    Takahiro Nemoto, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Tamotsu Sibasaki

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 24-30
    Received: Feb. 25, 2015
    Accepted: Mar. 25, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: High fat diet (HFD) induces dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. The HPA axis is controlled by the feedback of glucocortioids on the hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary. At least three miRNAs (miR-101a, miR-124, miR-142-3p) have been reported to suppress glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translation. Because their... Show More
  • Novel Tryptophan Derivatives as Potentially Effective Therapeutic Drugs to Treat Bone Diseases

    Nobuo Suzuki, Masanori Somei, Azusa Seki, Toshio Sekiguchi, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Hiroyuki Mishima, Yoichi Kase, Atsushi Kaminishi, Koji Yachiguchi, Kei-ichiro Kitamura, Yuji Oshima, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Sachiko Yano, Atsuhiko Hattori

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 31-38
    Received: Feb. 16, 2015
    Accepted: Mar. 24, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: We recently developed an in vitro assay to study bone metabolism using fish scales that contain osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and calcified bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in mammalian membrane bone. Using the fish scale assay, we previously reported that the functions of calcemic hormones such as calcitonin and parathyroid hormone... Show More
  • Effect of Adrenomedullin Administration in Two Rat Models of Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Sayaka Nagata, Tomomi Hikosaka, Kazuo Kitamura

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 39-42
    Received: Mar. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 08, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel hypotensive peptide that also exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We recently showed that AM significantly reduces the clinical severity of acetic acid-induced colitis, an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of AM in two alternative rat mo... Show More
  • Characterization of Inflammatory Gene Expression and Chemotaxis of Macrophages Expressing Guanylin and Guanylyl Cyclase-C

    Kazuya Hasegawa, Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Yukari Date

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 43-47
    Received: Mar. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 09, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Depending upon the environment, macrophages can show at least two different phenotypes, including the inflammatory (M1) phenotype and the anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. CD11c–positive M1 macrophages produce proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, which ar... Show More
  • STARD3/MLN64 is Striving at Membrane Contact Sites: Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking for Steroidogenesis in Human Placental Cells

    Atsuki Nara, Tohru Komiya

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 48-52
    Received: Mar. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 22, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Steroid hormone synthesis begins with the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone by the enzyme cytochrome P450scc in mitochondria. The cholesterol used to synthesize pregnenolone is derived mainly from endocytosed LDL cholesterol. How this LDL cholesterol is transported to mitochondria in the human placenta is not well understood. Recent work ... Show More
  • Steroid Hormones as Transporters to Carry Exogenous Macromolecules into the Target Cell Nuclei in Vivo

    Toshikazu Nishimura

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 53-57
    Received: Jan. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Apr. 01, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Upon injection into the vascular system of rats, testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate (testosterone-BSA) is taken up by cells via the process of endocytosis. When it is taken up by the target cells of testosterone such as spermatogenic cells, it enters the nuclei of the cells. However, testosterone-BSA does not enter the nuclei of the non-ta... Show More
  • Overviews of Stem Cells for Gonadal and Adrenal Steroidogenic Cells

    Takashi Yazawa, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Kaoru Miyamoto, Junsuke Uwada, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Takanobu Taniguchi

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015
    Pages: 58-64
    Received: Mar. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Mar. 31, 2015
    Published: May 06, 2015
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    This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones
    Abstract: Gonads and adrenal glands are the primary organs for the production of steroid hormones in mammals. Steroid hormones play important roles in development and are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis during adult life. To supply sufficient amounts of hormones, gonads and adrenal glands maintain their functions by replenishment of steroidogeni... Show More