American Journal of Life Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Effect of Application of Palm Bunch Ash on the Growth and Yield of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in a Pineapple Orchard

The experiment was conducted at Akwa Ibom State University Teaching and Research Farm Obio Akpa Campus during the 2020 first planting season to evaluate the effect of application of palm bunch ash on the growth and yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in an established pineapple orchard. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The treatments were five (5) different rates of Oil palm bunch ash - 1.0ton/ha, 2.0tons/ha, 3.0tons/ha, 4.0tons/ha and a control (0ton/ha - no fertilizer). Data collected for the growth and yield parameters were subjected to analysis of variance. Significant means were compared with least significant differences (P<0.05) at 5% probability level. Result showed significant differences (P<0.005) in all the growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, leaf area) and yield parameters (number of fruits/ plant, length of fruits/plant, circumference of fruits/plant, yield of fruits/plant). Treatment with 4.0tons/ha palm bunch ash produced higher values of plant at 2, 4 6, 8 weeks after planting, while the lowest values of plant height was recorded with 1.0ton/ha treatment at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after planting compared to the control treatment. The treatment with 4.0tons/ha oil palm bunch ash also had significantly values of number of leaves, stem girth and leaf area at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after planting. The least values of stem girth and leaf area at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after planting were recorded with 1.0ton/ha treatment. Higher values of number of fruits/plant (17.30), length of fruits/plant (12.50cm), circumference of fruits/plant (15.75cm) and fruit yield (20.13t/ha) were obtained with 4.0tons/ha oil palm bunch ash treatment while least values of number of fruits/plant (4.77), length of fruits/plant (10.43cm), circumference of fruits/plant (13.11cm) and fruit yield (5.42t/ha) were recorded with 1.0t/ha compared with the control treatment.

Eggplant, Palm Bunch Ash, Pineapple Orchard

Udounang Patrick Ibanga, Umoh Florence Otobong, Essien Otobong Anthony, Umoh Emediong Effiong, Ndaeyo Nya Udo. (2023). Effect of Application of Palm Bunch Ash on the Growth and Yield of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in a Pineapple Orchard. American Journal of Life Sciences, 11(4), 50-55.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Akata O. R (2015). Influence of organic fertilizers on soil fertility, weed dynamics and performances of cassava variety in Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. Unpublished thesis of depertment of crop science, University of Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria.
2. Amy Jennings, A. A., Welch, S. J., Fairweather-Tait., C. K., Anne-Marie, M., Phil, C., Benyu, J., Marina, C. L., Tim, S., Alex, M. and Aedín, C. (2012). Studies on the nutritional and health benefit s of Eggplant to humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 96 (4): 781–788. Published: 22 August 2012.
3. Asten, M. A., Ojeniyi, S. O., Adeboye, A. and Odedina (2011). Effect of oil Palm Bunch refuse ash on soil and plan nutrient Composition and yield of maize. American –Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 1 (1): 50-54.
4. Bliss, R. M. and Elstein, D. (2004). Scientists get under eggplant's skin. ARS Magazine: 52 (1): 231-245.
5. Braga, P. C., Lo Scalzo, R., Dal Sasso, M., Lattuada, N., Greco, V., and Fibiani, M. (2016). Characterization and antioxidant activity of semi-purified extracts and pure delphinine-glycosides from eggplant peel (Solanum melongena L.) and allied species. Journal of Functional Foods. 20, 411–421. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2015.10.032.
6. Bell, BC., Bingham I., Rees RM., Watson C., Litterick A. (2005). The role of crop rotation in determining soil structure and crop growth conditions: Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 85 (50): 557-578.
7. Cao, G., Sofic, E., and Prior, R. L. (1996). Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry. 44: 3426–3431. doi: 10.1021/jf9602535.
8. Cordeirio, W. S., Candy, N. Y., Wing‐Kwan, P. N., Marcus, H. Y., Chin-yee, K., Robbie, Y. K. C., Peter, F. Y. and Shun‐Wan, C. F. (2009). Influence of residual manure on selected nutrient elements and microbial composition of soil under long-term crop rotation. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 18: 16-21.
9. Costa, W., Rethman, N. F. G., Hammes, P. S., Alamu, D. A. (2006). Effects of Farmyard manure and Inorganic fertilizers on sorghum Growth, yield and Nitrogen use in a semi-arid area of Ethopia. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29 (2): 391-401.
10. Daunay, M. C., hazra, P. (2012).” Eggplant in handbook of vegetables, eds K. V. Peters andHazra (Houston, Tx: Studium Press). P 257-322.
11. Dunlop and Fuchsia (2006), Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Human Province, Ebury Press. pp 202 - 208.
12. Davis, J. G., Wilson, C. R., David, P. (2008). Choosing a soil amendment. Colorado State University, Extension bulletin. 7: 235 - 239.
13. Docimo, T., Francese G., Ruggiero A., Batelli G., De-Palma M., Bassolino L. (2016). Phenylpropanoids accumulation in eggplant fruit: characterization of biosynthetic genes and regulation by a MYB transcription factor. Frontier Plant Science. 6: 1233 - 1238.
14. Food and Agriculture Organization (2014). Statistics Production Data Base Available online at
15. Frary, A., Doganlar, S., Daunay, M. C. (2007). Eggplant. In: C. Kole (ed). Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants. Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 5: 287-313.
16. Ikeh, A. O., Udounang, P. I., Akata, O. R. and Udoh, E. A. (2017). Effects of time of harvesting and fertilization on yield of yield of cucumber in an alfisols. Journal of sustainable Agriculture. 6: 67-74.
17. Kramer, A. W., Doane, T. A., Horwath, W. R. and Kessel, C. V. (2002). Combining fertilizer and inorganic inputs to synchronize N supply in alternative cropping systems in California. Journal of Agriculture, Economic and Environment. 91: 233-243.
18. Lal R. (2016). Soil health and carbon management. Food and Energy Security 5 (4): 212-222 "Patterns of Food Consumption in Early Modern Iran". doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935369.013.13.
19. Maciel, F. C. S., Cordeiro, A. C. C., Limc, A. C. S., Correia, R. G., Silva, W. L. M and Lopes, A. D. O. (2013). Desenvolvimento vestativo de cultivars depalma de oleo dos 14 aos 34 mes de idadi em ecossistemas de Roraiima. Revista agroambiente, 7, 304-312. Https://
20. Manlay, R. J., Feller, C., Swift, M. J. (2007). Historical evolution of soil organic matter Concepts and their relationships with the fertility and sustainability of cropping systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 119 (3): 217-233.
21. Mennella, G., Lo Scalzo, R., Fibiani, M., D'Alessandro, A., Francese, G., Toppino, L. (2012). Chemical and bioactive quality traits during ripening in eggplant (Solanum malongena L.) and allied species. Journal of Agriculture and food chemistry. 60: 11821-1183.
22. Matthee, A. and Vijayaraghavan, V. (2016). Successful commercialization of insect resistant in Eggplant by a public private partnership: Reaching and benefiting resource poor farmers in intellectual property management in Health and Agricultural innovation: A handbook of best practice eds a. Kratiger R. T., Mahoney L., Nelsen J. A., Thomson A. B., Bennet K., Satyanarayana, G. D. Graff, C., Fernades, Kowalski J. P., (Oxford: MHR and Davis PIPRA). Available online at
23. Plazas, M., Prohens, J., Cunat, A. N., Vilanova, S., Gramazio, P., Herraiz, F. J., (2014).
24. Raymond, A. O and Bell, B. C (2006). Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants. International Journal of Molecular Science. 15: 17221–17241. doi: 10.3390/ijms151017221.
25. Raigón, M. D., Prohens, J., Muñoz-Falcón, J. E., and Nuez, F. (2008). Comparison of eggplant landraces and commercial varieties for fruit content of phenolics, minerals, dry matter and protein. Journal of Food Composition Analysis. 21: 370–376. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2008.03.006.
26. Sanderson, A. S., Helen, C. T. and Renfrew, J. M. (2005). The Cultural History of Plants. Routledge. p. 118-128. ISBN 0415927463.
27. Sarka, B., Davide, C. D., Francesco, D. P., Letizia, M. P., Satriano, A. and Giulio, M. A. (2018). The effect of lutein on eye and extra-eye health. Nutrients. 10 (9): 1321- 1335 doi: 10.3390/nu10091321.
28. Stommel, J. R., Whitaker, B. D., Haynes, K. G., and Prohens, J. (2015). Genotype × environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content. Euphytica 205: 823–836. doi: 10.1007/s10681-015-1415-2.
29. Satynarayana, V. M., Vera, P. V., Murphy, V. R. K., Boots, K. J. (2002). Influence of Integrated use of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer on yield and yield components of irrigated lowland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 25 (10): 281-2090.
30. Schippers, R. R. (2000). African Indigenous Vegetables. An overview of the Cultivated Specie. National Resource Institute/ Acp Eu Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Corporation, Chatham, UK. pp 67-98.
31. Slus-AKS (1989). Physiological background. Soil and land ecological problems. Technological report of the task force on soil and land use survey-AKS-The Government.
32. Trujilo Linda. (2003), "The Elegant Eggplant", Master Gardener Journal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016, retrieved 16 September 2018.
33. Udoh, D. J., Asuquo, P. E., Bassey, A. N. and Ndaeyo, N. U. (2005) Crop production techniques for the tropics. Concept Publications Limited, Lagos, Nigeria. pp 232-238.